What is CCS?

Carbon Capture and Storage is a technique for trapping carbon dioxide as it is emitted, compressing it, and transporting it to a suitable storage site where it is injected into geological formations including oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline reservoirs.

CCS is not a new technology. CO2 has been captured for nearly 100 years for industrial purposes or to increase oil or gas production. When not captured, CO2 is vented into the atmosphere; the costs of capture and storage are high and regulatory frameworks, incentive frameworks and support programs do not yet exist.

 

Capturing and storing CO2 as a technology to mitigate climate change is new. Demonstrating the world that the CCS chain works and forms an essential part in the process of CO2 reduction, and scale down the costs represent a huge challenge.

 

 

Carbon capture and  storage

Chain

The first step in the CCS chain is to capture and purify CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. The most efficient way to do this is at large stationary emission sources such as power plants, oil refineries and major industrial complexes.

The next step is to compress the CO2 to 100-150 bar. The liquid like CO2 is then transported by pipeline or tanker.

The final step is to store the CO2 in the deep underground in (depleted) oil or gas fields, unmineable coal beds or saline reservoirs and in the deep ocean (probably very large -order > 100,000 Gt CO2- but disputed

 

Other techniques such as fixating CO2 in rock (mineralization) and industrial applications are being investigated.